Changes between Version 5 and Version 6 of TracFastCgi


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Timestamp:
Jan 12, 2016, 11:21:52 PM (3 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

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  • TracFastCgi

    v5 v6  
    1 = Trac with FastCGI
    2 
    3 [[TracGuideToc]]
    4 [[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, floated)]]
    5 
    6 [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. Additionally, it is supported by a much wider variety of web servers.
    7 
    8 Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], ie run with different permissions than the web server runs with. `mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect.
     1[[PageOutline]]
     2
     3= Trac with FastCGI =
     4
     5[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request.  Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
     6
     7Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], i.e. run with different permissions than web server running with (`mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect).
    98
    109'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP]/[trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp ISAPI].
    1110
    12 == Apache configuration
    13 
    14 There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and `mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
     11[[PageOutline(2-3,Overview,inline)]]
     12
     13
     14== Simple Apache configuration ==
     15
     16There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
     17`mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
    1518
    1619The following sections focus on the FCGI specific setup, see also [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] for configuring the authentication in Apache.
    1720
    18 Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done: `Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server`.
    19 
    20 === Set up with `mod_fastcgi`
    21 
     21Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done. (Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server)
     22
     23=== Set up with `mod_fastcgi` ===
    2224`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
    23 {{{#!apache
     25{{{
    2426# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
    2527# (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like
     
    3133LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fastcgi.so
    3234}}}
    33 
    3435Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group.
    3536
    36 Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
     37Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but
     38calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
    3739
    3840Add the following to the Apache configuration file (below the `FastCgiIpcDir` line) if you intend to set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
    39 {{{#!apache
     41{{{
    4042FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
    4143}}}
    4244
    4345Alternatively, you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory by adding this:
    44 {{{#!apache
     46{{{
    4547FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
    4648}}}
    4749
    48 === Set up with `mod_fcgid`
    49 
    50 Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`:
    51 {{{#!apache
     50=== Set up with `mod_fcgid` ===
     51Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi`
     52instead of `trac.cgi`. Note that slash at the end - it is important.
     53{{{
    5254ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    5355}}}
    5456
    55 Note the slash at the end.
    56 
    57 To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try the alternative environment setup below:
    58 {{{#!apache
     57To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use
     58`DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or
     59`Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try
     60alternative environment setup below.
     61
     62{{{
    5963DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
    6064}}}
    6165
    62 === Alternative environment setup
    63 
    64 A better method to specify the path to the Trac environment is to embed the path into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of the server environment variables, works for both [trac:FastCgi] modules as well as for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI:
    65 {{{#!python
     66=== alternative environment setup ===
     67A better method to specify path to Trac environment is to embed the path
     68into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of server
     69environment variables, works for both FastCgi modules
     70(and for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well):
     71{{{
    6672import os
    6773os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
    6874}}}
    69 
    70 or:
    71 {{{#!python
     75or
     76{{{
    7277import os
    7378os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
    7479}}}
    7580
    76 With this method different projects can be supported by using different `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
     81With this method different projects can be supported by using different
     82`.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
    7783
    7884See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
    79 {{{#!apache
     85{{{
    8086ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    8187}}}
    8288
    83 == Cherokee Configuration
    84 
    85 Configuring [http://cherokee-project.com/ Cherokee] with Trac is straightforward, if you spawn Trac as an SCGI process. You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
    86 
    87 First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter:
     89== Simple Cherokee Configuration ==
     90
     91The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process.
     92You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
     93First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter.
    8894
    8995{{{
     
    98104
    99105After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
    100 The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local Trac resources).
    101 
    102 '''Note:''' If the tracd process fails to start up, and Cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package ([trac:#9903]). Python-flup is a dependency which provides Trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on Debian based systems with:
    103 {{{#!sh
     106The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local trac resources).
     107
     108Note:\\
     109If the tracd process fails to start up, and cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package.\\
     110Python-flup is a dependency which provides trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on debian based systems with:
     111{{{
    104112sudo apt-get install python-flup
    105113}}}
    106114
    107 == Lighttpd Configuration
    108 
    109 The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ Lighttpd].
    110 
    111 Lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance environments. It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
    112 
    113 For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with Lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     115
     116== Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
     117
     118The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
     119
     120lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
     121environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     122
     123For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
    114124{{{
    115125#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     
    128138}}}
    129139
    130 Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above, and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf` using `bin-environment`, as in the section above on Apache configuration.
    131 
    132 Note that Lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in Lighttpd 1.5, and under Lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
     140Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above,
     141and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf`
     142using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration).
     143
     144Note that lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in lighttpd 1.5, and under lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
    133145
    134146For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     
    154166                )
    155167}}}
    156 
    157 Note that the field values are different. If you prefer setting the environment variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, eg to `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
    158 Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
    159 
    160 {{{#!div class=important
    161 '''Note:''' The order in which the server.modules are loaded is very important: if mod_auth is not loaded '''before''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
     168Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment
     169variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to
     170`first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     171Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even
     172if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     173
     174{{{
     175#!div class=important
     176'''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
    162177}}}
    163178
     
    198213               )
    199214
    200 }}}
    201 
    202 Note that Lighttpd (v1.4.3) stops if the password file doesn't exist.
    203 
    204 Note that Lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
    205 
    206 Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, ie serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     215
     216}}}
     217Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist.
     218
     219Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     220
     221Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
    207222{{{
    208223# Aliasing functionality is needed
     
    228243}
    229244}}}
    230 
    231245The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
    232 
    233 Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it uses `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` instead of `TRAC_ENV` as well as global authentication:
     246Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
    234247{{{
    235248#  This is for handling multiple projects
     
    261274}}}
    262275
    263 Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME:
     276Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME
    264277{{{
    265278fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     
    275288                 )
    276289}}}
    277 
    278290For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
    279291
    280292Other important information like the [wiki:TracInstall#MappingStaticResources mapping static resources advices] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
    281 
    282 Relaunch Lighttpd and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
    283 
    284 Note about running Lighttpd with reduced permissions: If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with Lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
    285 
    286 == !LiteSpeed Configuration
     293]
     294
     295Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     296
     297Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions:
     298
     299If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     300
     301
     302== Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration ==
    287303
    288304The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     
    290306!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
    291307
    292  1. Please make sure you have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with "tracd" first.
    293  1. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your Trac project will be accessible via:
     308 1. Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first.
     309
     310 2. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via:
     311
    294312{{{
    295313http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    296314}}}
    297  1. Go "!TracVhost → External Apps" tab and create a new "External Application":
     315
     316 3. Go “!TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”.
     317
    298318{{{
    299319Name: MyTracFCGI       
     
    311331Instances: 10
    312332}}}
    313  1. Optional: If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to "!TracVhost → Security" tab and create a new security Realm:
    314  {{{
     333
     334 4. Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “!TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”.
     335
     336{{{
    315337DB Type: Password File
    316338Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later
    317339User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file
    318340}}}
    319  If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
    320  1. Go to "!PythonVhost → Contexts" and create a new FCGI Context:
    321  {{{
     341
     342If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
     343
     344 5. Go to “!PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”.
     345
     346{{{
    322347URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created   
    323 Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the Trac fcgi extapp we just created
     348Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the trac fcgi extapp we just created
    324349Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4)
    325350}}}
    326  1. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`:
    327  {{{
     351
     352 6. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`
     353
     354{{{
    328355#find/set base_rul, url, and link variables
    329356base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to
     
    331358link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo
    332359}}}
    333  1. Restart !LiteSpeed: `lswsctrl restart`, and access your new Trac project at {{{http://yourdomain.com/trac/}}}.
    334 
    335 == Nginx Configuration
    336 
    337 [http://nginx.org/en/ Nginx] is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
     360
     361 7. Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
     362
     363{{{
     364http://yourdomain.com/trac/
     365}}}
     366
     367
     368== Simple Nginx Configuration ==
     369
     370Nginx is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
    338371
    339372 1. Nginx configuration with basic authentication handled by Nginx - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
    340  {{{#!nginx
     373{{{
    341374    server {
    342375        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     
    353386        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
    354387
    355         # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx (or ``~ [/some/prefix]/chrome/(.*)``)
    356         location ~ /chrome/(.*) {
    357              alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/$1;
     388        # (Or ``^/some/prefix/(.*)``.
     389        if ($uri ~ ^/(.*)) {
     390             set $path_info /$1;
    358391        }
    359392
    360         # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix](/login)``
     393        # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx
     394        location /chrome/ {
     395             alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/;
     396        }
     397
     398        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix]/login``
    361399        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
    362400        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
    363401        # for accessing the whole site.
    364         # (Or ``~ location /some/prefix(/.*)``.)
    365         location ~ (/.*) {
     402        # (Or ``location /some/prefix``.)
     403        location / {
    366404            auth_basic            "trac realm";
    367405            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
     
    377415            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
    378416            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
    379             fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $1;
     417            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info;
    380418
    381419            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     
    400438    }
    401439}}}
    402  1. Modified trac.fcgi:
    403  {{{#!python
     440
     441 2. Modified trac.fcgi:
     442
     443{{{
    404444#!/usr/bin/env python
    405445import os
     
    432472
    433473}}}
    434  1. Reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi:
    435  {{{#!sh
     474
     475 3. reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
     476
     477{{{
    436478trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
    437479}}}
    438480
    439481The above assumes that:
    440  * There is a user named 'trac' for running Trac instances and keeping Trac environments in its home directory
    441  * `/home/trac/instance` contains a Trac environment
     482 * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory.
     483 * `/home/trac/instance` contains a trac environment
    442484 * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information
    443  * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the Nginx runs under
     485 * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
    444486  * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`)
    445   * and patch from [trac:#7239] is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
    446 
    447 Unfortunately Nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
    448 Thus it is not possible to serve multiple Trac instances from one server block.
    449 
    450 If you worry enough about security, run Trac instances under separate users.
    451 
    452 Another way to run Trac as a FCGI external application is offered in [trac:#6224].
     487  * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
     488
     489Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
     490Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.
     491
     492If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.
     493
     494Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
    453495
    454496----
    455 See also: TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]
     497See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]